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Czech schoolmasters in Slovakia 1918 – 1938

Českí stredoškolskí profesori na Slovensku v rokoch 1918-1938


Pavol Matula, Ústav regionálnych a národnostných štúdií Prešovskej univerzity,

ISSN: 1335-3608


The entry of high school teachers in Slovakia was one of the possibilities how to solve a dearth of Slovak pedagogues in relatively short time and to built-up a Slovak high school system. The existential conditions of Czech high school pedagogues, active in Slovakia in the inter-war period, were in many regards, in comparison to conditions in Czechland and Moravia, relatively worse. On the other side, various financial compensations, which were not possible to obtain in Czechland, motivated many Czech pedagogues to remain in Slovakia. The government policy, leading to abundant and non-systematic addition of new Czech pedagogues into Slovakia, placed these pedagogues into unwelcome position, as a person, who are taking places of Slovak educators. Another problem, which after establishment of Czechoslovakia and entry of Czechs in Slovakia ensued, was problem of language. The attitude of Czech pedagogues to Slovak language was determined by their general attitude to Slovakia. The use of Czech language in Slovak high schools complicated the position of Czech educators in Slovakia. In spite of decreasing numbers of pedagogues who did not use the Slovak language in teaching, yet in the second half of thirties a Czech language was in use in Slovak high schools. Insufficient knowledge of local conditions caused, that Czech teachers were insensitive to religious situation in Slovakia. The most conflicting were the relations of Czech teachers to teachers of religion, who were frequently the cause of clashes. The conflicting relation of Czech educators to religion seems as one of the most relevant moments, which contributed to the disharmony in Czech – Slovak relations and termination from common statehood  to the end of thirties. The endeavours of Czech teaches to increase a general level of education in Slovakia during their twenty years of activity in Slovakia, helped Slovaks to made a considerable progress and to rapidly approach to cultural values and traditions of more developed western Europe. This side of activities of Czech educators can be judged as the most valuable. Despite these achievements, a certain barrier between Czech pedagogues and Slovaks existed, which led to their isolation. Reason for this can be found in different cultural background. The final period of activities of Czech teachers in Slovakia commenced on 6. October 1938. Their position altered dramatically after declaration of Slovak autonomy. The goal of Slovak government was gradual transfer of all Czech government employees out of Slovakia. The hostile atmosphere in society convinced the majority of Czech pedagogues, that even in case of possibility of staying in Slovakia, the only suitable solution is to return to Czechland.

Bibliografické informácie (sk)

MATULA, Pavol. Českí stredoškolskí profesori na Slovensku v rokoch 1918-1938. Človek a spoločnosť, 2006, roč. 9, č. 2.

Bibliographic information

MATULA, Pavol. Czech schoolmasters in Slovakia 1918 – 1938. Individual and Society, 2006, Vol. 9, No. 2.

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