Középső-Zemplén lakosságának etnikai összetétele és a térségben végbemenő etnikai határvonalak változásai a 18. századtól napjainkig (2)
Ethnic Composition of Cenral Zemplin and Changes of Ethnic Boundaries from Eighteen Century till Present Time
The analysis of ethnical composition became one of the central parts of the paper. The difficulty was caused by the fact that three ethnical borderlines have to be monitored. We are taking into consideration not only the official data of population censuses, but also the records and registries of place names before the dualism. By analysing and comparing the data we found out, that only by comparing a valid consequences can be delineated. The method of comparison is necessary to apply in order to find the differences in the researched materials and to point out the real situation, since there are serious differences between the territorial spread of languages during the time span of years 1773 and 1851. The task of examining the population’s ethnical classification from the second part of the 19th century seemed to be easier. The official population censuses of the years 1880, 1900 and 1910 showed the penetration of Hungarian language. The use of Hungarian language area gradually extended to north. The Hungarian-Slovak ethnical border spread on the line of Kolása, Alsómihályi, Velejte, Gercsely, and Hardicsa, but the number of population with Hungarian language in north also increased. From the Slovaks’ point of view this period meant both losses and gains. On the southern parts of the Gálszécs district their number decreased in favour of the Hungarians, but the Slovak-Ruthenian language border moved in favour of the Slovaks. From the three language borders the Ruthenians lost gradually. Further processes and changes showed the Ruthenians’ broad assimilation. We witnessed peculiar discrepancies in the case of language changes of areas lying on the Hungarian-Slovak language contact area. Ethnically mixed population living at the northern language boundary-line was almost completely bilingual, and, in 1910, of this population more people were registered as Hungarian speakers, than in 1880. Obviously, these localities remained bilingual, although people considering themselves Hungarian speakers were in majority. These “fluctuations“ did not mean real and final assimilation, as some of the researches have stated. Inter-cultural communication of ethnically mixed localities, development of social relations between nationalities, and the examination of problems related to the everyday contact of several ethnic groups were not included in my aims of research. It would be necessary to provide further analyses in this direction in order to get an answer for the specific changes of population of the ethnical borderline in the north. Examination that is like drilling in depth is almost inevitable for further researches, that is the only way to discover the reason-effect relations.
Cenral Zemplin. Ethnic Composition.Hungarian-Slovak ethnical border. Hungarian-Slovak language.
Bibliografické informácie (sk)
SÁPOSOVÁ, Zlatica. Középső-Zemplén lakosságának etnikai összetétele és a térségben végbemenő etnikai határvonalak változásai a 18. századtól napjainkig (2). Človek a spoločnosť, 2005, roč. 8, č. 2.
SÁPOSOVÁ, Zlatica. Ethnic Composition of Cenral Zemplin and Changes of Ethnic Boundaries from Eighteen Century till Present Time. Individual and Society, 2005, Vol. 8, No. 2.
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EN: Ethnic Composition of Cenral Zemplin and Changes of Ethnic Boundaries from Eighteen Century till Present Time